At the end of each Genesis day, the day is numbered: day one; second day; third day; fourth day….
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His answer is brilliant. And to write "first", it must be comparative to a second commentary on Genesis We see this in the naming of the world wars. The biblical perspective of time for the six days of Genesis is from day one, looking forward. We look back in time and measure 14 billion years of cosmic history since the big bang creation of our universe. This is a totally non-human view of time. Professor Peebles in his book, Principles of Physical Cosmology , states this perfectly but in technical terms:.
The key word here is perspective. They are two views of one reality.
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Again, it is Nahmonides who leads the way. Energy, light beams, are outside of time; they do not measure time.
The History of the Universe
If an ethereal weightless you travelled on a light beam from the sun to the earth, your watch would record zero time. But if I could watch that light beam as it travelled, I would measure that about 8 minutes and a few seconds passed in that identical journey from sun to earth.
Two true perspectives of one event. The Bible views time looking forward into the expanding space of the universe from the moment of the formation of protons, a moment that was a tiny fraction of a second following the big bang creation of the universe, when the universe was vastly smaller than it is today. Our earth-based scientific measure views time looking back in time from the present perspective of our huge universe toward that moment when protons formed, a tiny fraction of a second following the big bang creation of the universe — a time when the universe was vastly smaller than it is today.
With this combination of ancient wisdom and modern discovery, we can now calculate the age of the universe as measured from these two vastly different perspectives. The key to the calculation that relates our time perspective looking back into time to that of the Torah which looks forward into the expanding space of the universe is to realize that even if the rate of expansion is approximately constant after the initial fraction of a second, the fractional rate of change i. That is because when the universe was smaller it doubled in size more rapidly than when it got bigger.
This becomes what is known by scientific jargon as a non-linear relationship. This equation defines the decay rate of every atom in the universe. It also can be used to describe the distances from the sun for the seven inner planets except for the earth. With this relationship there should not be an earth where the earth is. And yet this is the only location in the solar system that is suitable for sustaining life.
This equation is also the relationship that describes the link between the earth view of time looking back into the history of the universe from the present and the Biblical view of time looking forward from the beginning for the six days of Genesis. Recall that the years of the Biblical calendar start with Adam, not with the creation of the universe. The six days of Genesis form a separate calendar and are therefore described in a unique way.
Nowhere else in the entire Hebrew Bible do we read this couplet for the description of the passage of time. Some people run away at the sight of a math equation. If that is you, just skip down to the results, but as the advert tells us, getting there is half the fun. The fun part of the calculations comes when the equation is evaluated day by day and we can compare the claims of the Bible for each Genesis day with the discoveries in science for those days. To determine the duration of each of the six hour Genesis days, we evaluate the equation for each day; t time goes from 0 to 1 for day one, 1 to 2 for the second day, etc.
With the chronology of the days of Genesis established, it is a simple matter to compare the key events of each day as recorded in Genesis and interpreted by ancient commentaries with the discoveries of modern science. In doing so we must bear in mind that what science presents in literally tens of thousands of publications, Genesis brings in 31 sentences.
As such there is no bending of the ancient Bible to match the discoveries of modern science. Science: The big bang creation of the universe [Recall that until some 60 years ago, the overwhelming opinion of the scientific community was that the universe was eternal. The Bible was wrong from its first sentence! Then the evidence for the big bang creation was observed and overnight the world learned that the Bible got it right! Immediately following the big bang creation of the universe, as the universe expanded from its initial miniscule point at creation, the energy of the universe became increasingly more dilute in the increasing volume of space.
At the lowered energy level, electrons were able to bond to atomic nuclei, and light was able to separate from the initial plasma. First stars and galaxies form approximately 13 billion years ago Bromm, V. Bible Gen. Science : Approximately 4. This marked the start of plant life with the plants mentioned in the text developing over the following Genesis days Nahmonides, ca , commentary on Gen.
Science : By 3. A crust of solid rock formed on the surface of the earth that gradually broke into continent-sized blocks. As these blocks of crust moved over the surface of the earth at about a centimeter a year, rock piled up at the leading edge forming mountain ranges. As these mountains weathered and eroded, they raised the surfaces of the continents above sea level. If this would not have happened, the entire surface of the earth today would be totally covered by approximately 2 km deep water.
Perhaps the most famous evidence for this mountain-forming phenomenon of continental drift are the fossils found in the Burgess Pass of the Canadian Rocky Mountains.
Approximately 10, years ago, toward the end of the last ice age, glaciers originating in the Artic had skimmed the top off a mountain and formed the Burgess Pass. This exposed shale filled with fossils that had been buried for over half a billion years.
Timeline of cosmological theories
The fossils, now known as the Burgess Shale fossils, are fossils of aquatic animals, but the Pass is 8, feet above sea level! What today are the shales and rocks of the Rocky Mountains, approximately million years ago were the mud and slime of a shallow tropical sea bed teaming with aquatic life. Life that became trapped in the mud and slime over millennia became the Burgess shale fossils and the slow drift of the continents moved and raised what was once a tropical sea bed to the dizzying heights of the Burgess Pass.
It is these fossils and the explosion of animal life that is alluded to in the opening sentences of the fifth day Genesis The event and the date are a spot-on match with the Biblical account of the fifth day. The original theory of the origin of life had in error predicted that billions of years must have passed between the appearance of liquid water on earth and the appearance of life. Hence, they both appear as the same size. Science : During the period of the fourth day, the Earth cooled sufficiently for the moisture in the previously cloud-covered earth to condense.
As a result, the atmosphere cleared and the sun, moon, and stars became visible. I personally have measured the photosynthetic production of oxygen on days that were so heavily overcast that although there was light penetrating the cluds, there was no indication of the glow of the sun behind the clouds. Science : With no forewarning by the underlying fossil record of the large animals and their extreme abundance about to appear, the Cambrian explosion of life, years ago, produced every basic animal body plan extant today as the waters swarmed with life Levinton, J.
Science Winged insects appeared ,, years ago with no hint found in older fossils of their impending arrival Marden, J. The land was then repopulated. What intrigues persons who study the fossil record is why, when the earth was re-populated and many ecological niches were opened due to the massive extinction, no basically new body types evolved. It may be that only those that preceded the extinction were suitable for the earth. It is not that the mechanism of evolution has changed. In 31 sentences the Bible describes the flow of existence from the creation of our magnificent life-supporting universe to the appearance of humanity.
The agreement between these two sources of knowledge, one ancient, one modern, is not surprising since there is one Author for both the ancient wisdom of the Bible and the secrets of nature so recently discovered by scientists. Don't you remember the "twin paradox" from Course 8.
After the big bang objects accelerated away from the point of origin. Therefore our clocks would have run slower, not faster. I pointed that out to you in Highland Park many years ago but you ducked the question.
Shortened for lack of space, but How old is the universe? Did Creation take place in 6 twenty-four hour days or were they longer? This week I bring to you a fascinating approach from a fascinating man. He lays out his research in his book, The Biblical Clock.
Why did Mr. Friedmann start investigating the connection between the Torah's story of Creation and the scientific timeline? Friedmann concluded that if the Torah is the blueprint of the universe, then the Torah account of creation and scientific account of the age of the Universe must coincide. About years ago Rabbi Isaac of Akko made the assertion that time — while God was creating and man had not yet appeared — was different than time as we keep today. Friedmann, based on this insight and on classical sources, aligns the dates of key events as described in Genesis 1 and 2 with those derived from scientific theory and observation.
Beginnings of life: from first thing on Day 5 "let the waters teem" Gen. Plant life on the land : from hours 6 to 9 on Day 6 until today "God planted a garden … and there He placed the man The Biblical Clock is available at Amazon.
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Thanks for this article. The Catholic Church made a big mistake by insisting that the Earth was the center of the Universe. Their theology need not have been based on this major error This article, while very erudite, reminds me of the same. How old? A bang or a whimper? Keeping things steady Inflating the truth Let there be time Groundhog universe Living in a bubble Welcome to the matrix Snapshot universe.
Timeline of cosmological theories - Wikipedia
Summary According to a recent survey, the most popular question about science from the general public was: what came before the Big Bang? We all know on some level what the Big Bang is, but we don't know how it became the accepted theory, or how we might know what came before. From the earliest creation myths, through Hershel's realization that the Milky Way was one of many galaxies, to on-going debates about Black Holes, this is an incredible look at the origins of the universe and the many theories that led to the acceptance of the Big Bang.
But in classic scientist fashion Clegg challenges the notion of the 'Big Bang' itself, and raises the deep philosophical question of why we might want to rethink the origin of the universe. This is popular science at its best, exploratory, controversial, and utterly engrossing. Subject Cosmology.