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Open Preview See a Problem? Details if other :. Thanks for telling us about the problem. Return to Book Page. Arturo Varchevker Editor. This book comprises a selection of papers initially presented as a series of lectures organized by the Psychoanalytic Forum of the British Psychoanalytical Society.
The aim of these lectures was to revisit Freud's key papers On Narcissism and Mourning and Melancholia , and to look at how they are used in today's thinking about the different stages of life. The contributions, by we This book comprises a selection of papers initially presented as a series of lectures organized by the Psychoanalytic Forum of the British Psychoanalytical Society.
The contributions, by well known clinicians and theoreticians in their respective fields, capture certain important themes which we are worthwhile to put together, having in mind two main incentives: first, the contributors consider that mourning, depression and narcissism constitute the basic fabric of psychoanalytic theorizing. Secondly, the centrality of these concepts not only illustrates a particular way of understanding mental functioning, but by locating them at different stages of the individual development, offers a wider, more effective and at times different perspective.
Get A Copy. Paperback , pages. Published March 27th by Routledge first published December 1st More Details Other Editions 4. Friend Reviews. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. The Ancient Greek physician Hippocrates described a syndrome of melancholia as a distinct disease with particular mental and physical symptoms; he characterized all "fears and despondencies, if they last a long time" as being symptomatic of the ailment.
The term depression itself was derived from the Latin verb deprimere , "to press down".
It was used in in English author Richard Baker's Chronicle to refer to someone having "a great depression of spirit", and by English author Samuel Johnson in a similar sense in An early usage referring to a psychiatric symptom was by French psychiatrist Louis Delasiauve in , and by the s it was appearing in medical dictionaries to refer to a physiological and metaphorical lowering of emotional function. The newer concept abandoned these associations and through the 19th century, became more associated with women. Although melancholia remained the dominant diagnostic term, depression gained increasing currency in medical treatises and was a synonym by the end of the century; German psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin may have been the first to use it as the overarching term, referring to different kinds of melancholia as depressive states.
Sigmund Freud likened the state of melancholia to mourning in his paper Mourning and Melancholia. He theorized that objective loss, such as the loss of a valued relationship through death or a romantic break-up, results in subjective loss as well; the depressed individual has identified with the object of affection through an unconscious , narcissistic process called the libidinal cathexis of the ego. Such loss results in severe melancholic symptoms more profound than mourning; not only is the outside world viewed negatively but the ego itself is compromised.
In the midth century, researchers theorized that depression was caused by a chemical imbalance in neurotransmitters in the brain, a theory based on observations made in the s of the effects of reserpine and isoniazid in altering monoamine neurotransmitter levels and affecting depressive symptoms. The term "unipolar" along with the related term " bipolar " was coined by the neurologist and psychiatrist Karl Kleist , and subsequently used by his disciples Edda Neele and Karl Leonhard.
The term Major depressive disorder was introduced by a group of US clinicians in the mids as part of proposals for diagnostic criteria based on patterns of symptoms called the "Research Diagnostic Criteria", building on earlier Feighner Criteria ,  and was incorporated into the DSM-III in The new definitions of depression were widely accepted, albeit with some conflicting findings and views. There have been some continued empirically based arguments for a return to the diagnosis of melancholia. The term "depression" is used in a number of different ways.
It is often used to mean this syndrome but may refer to other mood disorders or simply to a low mood. People's conceptualizations of depression vary widely, both within and among cultures.
What we call it—'disease,' 'disorder,' 'state of mind'—affects how we view, diagnose, and treat it. The diagnosis is less common in some countries, such as China. It has been argued that the Chinese traditionally deny or somatize emotional depression although since the early s, the Chinese denial of depression may have modified. Australian professor Gordon Parker and others have argued that the Western concept of depression "medicalizes" sadness or misery.
Historical figures were often reluctant to discuss or seek treatment for depression due to social stigma about the condition, or due to ignorance of diagnosis or treatments.
Nevertheless, analysis or interpretation of letters, journals, artwork, writings, or statements of family and friends of some historical personalities has led to the presumption that they may have had some form of depression. Watson ,  dealt with their own depression. There has been a continuing discussion of whether neurological disorders and mood disorders may be linked to creativity , a discussion that goes back to Aristotelian times.
Social stigma of major depression is widespread, and contact with mental health services reduces this only slightly. Public opinions on treatment differ markedly to those of health professionals; alternative treatments are held to be more helpful than pharmacological ones, which are viewed poorly. Depression is especially common among those over 65 years of age and increases in frequency beyond this age.
Depression Archives - Psychological Therapy Books
As with many other diseases, it is common among the elderly not to present with classical depressive symptoms. Problem solving therapy was, as of , the only psychological therapy with proven effect, and can be likened to a simpler form of cognitive behavioral therapy. The risks involved with treatment of depression among the elderly as opposed to benefits are not entirely clear.
MRI scans of patients with depression have revealed a number of differences in brain structure compared to those who are not depressed. Meta-analyses of neuroimaging studies in major depression reported that, compared to controls, depressed patients had increased volume of the lateral ventricles and adrenal gland and smaller volumes of the basal ganglia , thalamus , hippocampus , and frontal lobe including the orbitofrontal cortex and gyrus rectus.
Trials are looking at the effects of botulinum toxins on depression. The idea is that the drug is used to make the person look less frowning and that this stops the negative facial feedback from the face. Models of depression in animals for the purpose of study include iatrogenic depression models such as drug-induced , forced swim tests, tail suspension test , and learned helplessness models.
Criteria frequently used to assess depression in animals include expression of despair, neurovegetative changes, and anhedonia, as many other criteria for depression are untestable in animals, such as guilt and suicidality. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Depression; a mental disorder of low mood, self-esteem or energy. For other types of depression, see Mood disorder. Not to be confused with Depression mood. Play media. Further information: Biology of depression and Epigenetics of depression. Further information: Rating scales for depression. Main article: Major depressive episode. Main article: Depression differential diagnoses.
Main article: Management of depression. See also: Behavioral theories of depression. Main article: Epidemiology of depression. Main article: History of depression. See also: List of people with major depressive disorder. See also: Late life depression. Further information: Animal models of depression. May Archived from the original on 5 August Retrieved 31 July The Oxford Handbook of Depression and Comorbidity. Oxford University Press. Annual Review of Public Health.